PAKPAS GROUP OF COMPANIES-EMBA POWER PLANT AKTOBE INFORMATION REV-21

 

 

KAZAKHSTAN MAP

AKTOBE CITY AND AKTUBINSK REGION

 

Aktobe (KazakhАқтөбе / Aqtöbe / اقتٶبه), formerly known as Aktyubinsk(RussianАктюбинск, until 1999), is a city on the Ilek River in Kazakhstan. It is the administrative center of Aktobe Province. In 2013, it had a population of 371,546 people.

The name "Aktobe" comes from Kazakh "ақ" (white) and "төбе" (hill); the name is a reference to the heights on which the original 19th century settlement was located.

Founding and growth

The territory of modern-day Aktobe province has borne witness to the rise and fall of many Central Asian cultures and empires. The region has figured prominently in the history of the Kazakh "Little Horde" (Kaz. Кіші Жуз, Rus. Младший Жуз). The Kazakh war-leader Eset Batyr (Kaz. Есет Батыр) based his campaigns against the Dzungars from this area. His mausoleum is located 35 km. to the south of Aktobe city. Abulkhair Khan(1693–1748) was also based in this region.

In March 1869 a Russian military fort with a garrison of 300 was built at the confluence of the Kargala and Ilek Rivers, along the Orenburg - Kazalinskcaravan route. From this period Slavic settlers began to immigrate to the region in order to farm, and very soon neighborhoods had been built around the fort. In 1874 the fort was expanded in size, and streets were laid out to and from the fort's gate. In 1891 the settlement was labelled a district city, and officially named "Aktyubinsk": Актюбинск.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the settlement rapidly expanded in size. While the 1889 population was listed as 2600, the 1909 population had increased more than four times to 10716 official residents. The physical characteristics of the city had developed as well, and by the turn of the century the city could boast two churches, a seminary, a Tatar mosque, a "Russian - Kyrgyz" boys' school and girls' school, a clinic, a bank, a post office, a city park, a movie theater and two mills. The Trans-Aral Railway was extended through the city in 1901, and in the years before World War I industry and economy began to develop in the town, including the construction of an electric factory, a brick factory and an annual trade fair.

The city was affected by the Russian Revolution of 1905, and strikes and riots took place during the period 1905 - 1907. Bolshevik revolutionaries were very active in the city (at least according to official Soviet histories). On January 8, 1918 Bolsheviks moved to seize control of the local Soviet and by January 21, 1918 Bolshevik power was secured over the city.

Civil War

With its location on the Trans-Aral Railway, Aktobe was a strategic point much contested between the Red Army and their White opponents during theRussian Civil War. Kazakh and Russian inhabitants of Aktobe and its environs actively supported both sides in the conflict.

In mid-1918, elements of the Bolshevik First Orenburg and Twenty-eighth Regiments, commanded by G.V. Zinoviev, were effectively besieged in Aktobe by forces commanded by Ataman Dutov. Dutov, commanding approximately 10,000 rifles, 5,000 sabres, and 500 jigits (warriors) of the Alash Orda movement's newly formed Second Kazakh Mounted Regiment, attacked Aktobe in October, 1918. The attack only reached as far as the village of Ak Bulak.[2]

In the autumn of 1918, Mikhail Frunze's Fifth Army and Mikhail Tukhachevsky's First Army were ordered to break through and clear the railway, in order to allow Red Army forces to link up with Bolsheviks along the Syr Darya. White pressure on Aktobe was relieved by Frunze's capture of UralskOrenburg and Orsk in early 1919, but by April Dutov and Admiral Kolchak were able to launch a combined counteroffensive. Aktobe finally fell to the Whites on April 18, 1919, once again severing Bolshevik rail links to Central Asia.[3] In this offensive, the Whites also managed to capture and execute Amangeldy Imanov, a Kazakh military leader who had been operating in the Aktobe region with the support of Moscow.

By June 1919, Frunze had received reinforcements and had moved back on to the offensive. On September 10, Aktobe was secured by the Fifth Army after an eight-day battle. 20,000 of Kolchak's troops were captured, along with the easternmost part of the city.[4] From this point, Bolshevik forces were able to control the railway to Tashkent.

An All-Kazakhstan Conference of Soviet Workers was held in the city on March 13, 1920. This was the first of a series of regional organizing conferences held by the Bolsheviks that ultimately led to the creation of the Kirgiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic - the entity that would ultimately develop into the Soviet Republic of Kazakhstan.

Modern history

In 1932, Aktobe was named capital city of Aktobe Province. The city developed extensively during World War II as a result of the evacuation and reconstruction of factories from the Ukraine and from Moscow, including a worker's cooperative, aferroalloy factory, and an X-ray factory. Chromium likewise began to be mined and processed in the province. In the 1960s, an extensive expansion of the city was undertaken by Soviet authorities, resulting in the construction of the city "Center" and sports stadium.

Since Kazakhstani independence in 1991 the city's society and economy have dramatically changed. Older heavy industries have declined and been replaced in importance with the energy sector. The city has continued to expand with new construction and with many Kazakh immigrants moving to the city from the surrounding countryside.

On May 17, 2011 Aktobe was the site of one of Kazakhstan's first terrorist attacks, when a suicide bomber blew himself up in the headquarters of the local national security services. Some analysts have seen this as a scene of increasing instability in the oil-rich, but socially unequal, region.[5]

 

 

                                                                            

 

 

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